Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer in the world. But how does it start and what are the different types? This article will look at Coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, and congenital heart defects. Ultimately, heart disease may lead to death and a heart transplant. So how can you prevent it? Here are some tips. Read on to discover more.

Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease is the most common type of heart disease and is the number one cause of death in the U.S. Coronary artery disease occurs when the coronary arteries narrow or become blocked, preventing the heart from receiving enough oxygen-rich blood. When this happens, the heart muscles become injured due to the lack of oxygen. In addition, stiff and narrowed arteries are susceptible to clot formation and injury, causing heart attacks and other serious symptoms.

Despite its high mortality rates, coronary artery disease is preventable. To lower your risk of developing coronary artery disease, follow a heart-healthy lifestyle. High cholesterol and blood pressure can cause coronary artery disease. It is important to follow a diet low in saturated fat and avoid fatty foods. Moreover, a heart-healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of coronary artery disease and make it easier to control it.

Peripheral arterial disease

Peripheral arterial diseases occur when arteries in the legs become blocked, leading to a reduced flow of blood in that part of the body. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, being overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle. A surgeon can open blocked arteries by stent or surgical intervention. The procedure can be performed on an outpatient basis and many patients can resume normal activities the next day.

Although it is difficult to determine which factors cause lower-extremity peripheral arterial diseases, researchers can estimate the relative risks of death based on the prevalence of the diseases in the affected areas. These patients have a high risk of heart attacks and strokes, which are two of the most common complications of peripheral arterial disease. As a systemic disease, atherosclerosis is generally present throughout the body, making it difficult to diagnose specific causes of death in patients with peripheral artery disease.

Rheumatic heart disease

In children, rheumatic heart disease is the most common form of acquired heart disease. It is caused by an autoimmune response to an infection with group A streptococcus, a bacterium that commonly causes throat infections. While the symptoms of this disease are short-term, it can also lead to damage to the heart valves. Rheumatic heart disease, also known as rheumatic fever, is one of the most common types of acquired heart disease in children and adults.

The clinical manifestations of this condition vary among patients, depending on the area of the heart involved. Carditis is usually characterized by a pericardial friction rub, but signs of myocarditis include shortness of breath during exertion and abdominal distension. While this disease is often asymptomatic, it can lead to death if the affected patient undergoes cardiac surgery.

Congenital heart defects

Globally, there are more than 11 million people living with a congenital heart defect, and the prevalence is increasing. In fact, the number of people with a congenital heart defect has increased by about four per cent since 1990. The rise is likely due to improved survival and population growth, but ageing is also a factor. In the USA, there are approximately 466 566 people living with congenital heart disease, and of these, 279 320 people are younger than 20 years old.

The Global Burden of Diseases Study is a collaborative effort by researchers worldwide to compile and analyze data on causes of death. It is a source of internally consistent estimates on death and disability caused by diseases and other conditions. The GBD estimates of the mortality burden of congenital heart diseases represent an important advancement in addressing global health concerns and providing a clear roadmap for resource allocation and use.


Arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms caused by a problem in the electrical system. They can cause a rapid, slow, or chaotic heartbeat. Some arrhythmias can be life-threatening, while others are simply bothersome. These abnormal heart rhythms can also lead to blood clots, which can increase your risk of heart failure or stroke.

If you suspect that you have arrhythmia, you should speak with your doctor as soon as possible. Certain medications or lifestyle changes may be necessary, depending on the type of arrhythmia you have. You should never stop taking prescribed medications on your own. Instead, you should work with your doctor to come up with a treatment plan tailored to your individual needs. Although there are many symptoms that may signal arrhythmias, it is important to seek medical advice if you feel that your heart is not beating normally.

Heart failure

The symptoms of heart failure include shortness of breath, fatigue, fluid accumulation in the abdomen, and pain in the legs. It is most often caused by another heart disease, such as atherosclerosis or Coronary Artery Disease. However, it can also result from genetics, high blood pressure, and excessive alcohol and drug use. The severity of the symptoms depends on the severity of the disease, but early diagnosis and treatment are critical to the quality of life of patients.

Treatment of heart failure is aimed at slowing the progression of the disease. Treatment of heart failure consists of medication, dietary changes, and exercise. If the condition becomes advanced, mechanical solutions may be required. In severe cases, a patient may require advanced treatments such as a heart transplant or a mechanical heart pump. At Yale Medicine, patients are treated by a multidisciplinary team, including cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, exercise physiologists, and immunologists with expertise in heart transplants.